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Separating mixtures



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separating mixture Experiment Set Up, Page 2 example work sheets

Diagrams below show suggested experiment setting for the various separation techniques.

filtration

Filtration

evaporation

Evaporation


chromatography

In chromatography technique, only a small amount of mixture samples are required, often as little as a drop. The concept behind this techniques is that different constituent in a mixture have different solubility. As the solvent moves up the paper the less soluble constituent will travel at a slower rate than those of more soluble constituents. Hence the mixture will eventually separate into different colored spots as the solvent moves to the top. Sometimes, more sophisticated medium is used, such as thin plastic sheets coated with very fine pure aluminium oxide.


fractional distillation

Diagram on the left shows equipment set-up for fractional distillation. For normal distillation, the set-up is similar, except that the fractionating column is being removed. The curving structure of the fractionating column is to increase the surface area and encourage condensation of liquids with higher boiling points. Sometimes the column consists of a tube tightly packed with glass beads.

Some porcelain chips should be added into the conical flask to prevent hot spots and sudden boiling. The thermometer reading ensures that suitable temperature is reached at the boiling point of the desired liquid to condense out. This should be the liquid with a lower boiling point in the mixture.

separating mixtures example worksheets

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